Ahmet  Erdemir,  Ph.D.

Ahmet Erdemir, Ph.D.

Associate Staff

Lerner Research Institute, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44195
Phone: (216) 445-9523

Erdemir Laboratory

 

My primary scientific and clinical contributions are in simulation-based medicine, primarily in biomechanics, which explores motion and deformation of biological structures as they interact with the environment. My technical niche has been in physics-based computational modeling and simulation.

With the increasing prominence of computational medicine worldwide, we have identified three strategic impact areas to leverage computational modeling as a routine, reliable and efficient tool for healthcare delivery and biomedical science:

1) Our current activities aim for the development of anatomically and physiologically realistic databases of virtual specimens and subjects to support high-fidelity in silico experiments.

2) We have been developing simulation-integrated innovations and technologies to operate within the time constraints of clinical practice, and to extract individualized and actionable knowledge from limited data. Current applications extend beyond the musculoskeletal system and include cardiovascular and neurological systems.

3) Toward a goal of developing “good practices” to enhance credibility, reproducibility, and reusabilityin modeling and simulation. I have led many community initiatives to establish guidance on reporting of simulation studies, to unify perceptions about the requiredcomponents of credible practice, and to promote model sharing. Most recently, I mobilized national and international modeling teams to tackle the challenge of reproducibility in modeling and simulation using knee biomechanics as an example platform.

Lay Summary

The aging process and debilitating diseases such as osteoarthritis can affect the functioning of the human body--from the way we move to how our muscles, joints, tissues, and cells perform during daily activities. Our research program develops state-of-the-art computer recreations of the human body to understand how movement patterns and loads on the joints can deform tissues and cells. Through modeling and simulation, we test strategies to treat dysfunction that may occur in the musculoskeletal system.


View publications for Ahmet Erdemir, Ph.D.

Nynke B Rooks, Marco T Y Schneider, Ahmet Erdemir, Jason P Halloran, Peter J Laz, Kevin B Shelburne, Donald Hume, Carl Imhauser, William Zaylor, Shady Elmasry, Ariel Schwartz, Snehal Chokhandre, Neda Abdollahi Nohouji, Thor F Besier. A Method to Compare Heterogeneous Types of Bone and Cartilage Meshes. J Biomech Eng. 2021 May 27. doi: 10.1115/1.4051281. Online ahead of print. 

Noble C, Carlson KD, Neumann E, Doherty S, Dragomir-Daescu D, Lerman A, Erdemir A, Young M. Evaluation of the role of peripheral artery plaque geometry and composition on stent performance. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2021 Apr;116:104346. doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2021.104346. Epub 2021 Jan 25. PMID: 33529996

Chokhandre S, Neumann EE, Nagle TF, Colbrunn RW, Flask CA, Colak C, Halloran J, Erdemir A. Specimen specific imaging and joint mechanical testing data for next generation virtual knees. Data Brief. 2021 Jan 30;35:106824. doi: 10.1016/j.dib.2021.106824. eCollection 2021 Apr. PMID: 33659588 Free PMC article.

Rooks NB, Schneider MTY, Erdemir A, Halloran JP, Laz PJ, Shelburne KB, Hume D, Imhauser C, Zaylor W, Elmasry S, Schwartz A, Chokhandre S, Abdollahi Nohouji N, Besier TF. Deciphering the "Art" in Modeling and Simulation of the Knee Joint: Variations in Model Development. J Biomech Eng. 2021 Feb 4. doi: 10.1115/1.4050028. Online ahead of print. PMID: 33537727

Chokhandre S, Erdemir A. A comprehensive testing protocol for macro-scale mechanical characterization of knee articular cartilage with documented experimental repeatability. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2020 Dec;112:104025. doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2020.104025. Epub 2020 Aug 8. PMID: 32841833 Free article.

Jun BJ, Sahoo S, Imrey PB, Baker AR, Erdemir A, Jin Y, Iannotti JP, Entezari V, Ricchetti ET, Bey MJ, Derwin KA. Variability of glenohumeral positioning and bone-to-tendon marker length measurements in repaired rotator cuffs from longitudinal computed tomographic imaging. JSES Int. 2020 Sep 12;4(4):838-847. doi: 10.1016/j.jseint.2020.08.001. eCollection 2020 Dec. PMID: 33345224 Free PMC article.

Erdemir A, Mulugeta L, Ku JP, Drach A, Horner M, Morrison TM, Peng GCY, Vadigepalli R, Lytton WW, Myers JG Jr. Credible practice of modeling and simulation in healthcare: ten rules from a multidisciplinary perspective. J Transl Med. 2020 Sep 29;18(1):369. doi: 10.1186/s12967-020-02540-4. PMID: 32993675 Free PMC article. Review.

Müller JH, Razu S, Erdemir A, Guess TM. Prediction of patellofemoral joint kinematics and contact through co-simulation of rigid body dynamics and nonlinear finite element analysis. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2020 Aug;23(11):718-733. doi: 10.1080/10255842.2020.1761960. Epub 2020 May 7. PMID: 32379505

Erdemir A. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering: Legacy Paper 2019. J Biomech Eng. 2020 Jan 1. doi: 10.1115/1.4045873. Online ahead of print. PMID: 31899474 No abstract available.

Schimmoeller T, Neumann EE, Owings TM, Nagle TF, Colbrunn RW, Landis B, Jelovsek JE, Hing T, Ku JP, Erdemir A. Reference data on in vitro anatomy and indentation response of tissue layers of musculoskeletal extremities. Sci Data. 2020 Jan 15;7(1):20. doi: 10.1038/s41597-020-0358-1. PMID: 31941894 Free PMC article.

Schimmoeller T, Neumann EE, Nagle TF, Erdemir A. Reference tool kinematics-kinetics and tissue surface strain data during fundamental surgical acts. Sci Data. 2020 Jan 15;7(1):21. doi: 10.1038/s41597-020-0359-0. PMID: 31941889 Free PMC article.

Tanska P, Venäläinen MS, Erdemir A, Korhonen RK. A multiscale framework for evaluating three-dimensional cell mechanics in fibril-reinforced poroelastic tissues with anatomical cell distribution - Analysis of chondrocyte deformation behavior in mechanically loaded articular cartilage. J Biomech. 2020 Mar 5;101:109648. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2020.109648. Epub 2020 Jan 17. PMID: 32019679

Erdemir A, Besier TF, Halloran JP, Imhauser CW, Laz PJ, Morrison TM, Shelburne KB. Deciphering the "Art" in Modeling and Simulation of the Knee Joint: Overall Strategy. J Biomech Eng. 2019 Jul 1;141(7):0710021-07100210. doi: 10.1115/1.4043346. PMID: 31166589 Free PMC article. Review.

Sahoo S, Baker AR, Jun BJ, Erdemir A, Ricchetti ET, Iannotti JP, Derwin KA. A novel radiopaque tissue marker for soft tissue localization and in vivo length and area measurements. PLoS One. 2019 Oct 18;14(10):e0224244. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0224244. eCollection 2019. PMID: 31626672 Free PMC article.

Noble C, Carlson KD, Neumann E, Dragomir-Daescu D, Erdemir A, Lerman A, Young M. Patient specific characterization of artery and plaque material properties in peripheral artery disease. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2020 Jan;101:103453. doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2019.103453. Epub 2019 Sep 27. PMID: 31585351 Free PMC article.

Neumann EE, Owings TM, Erdemir A. J Biomech. 2019 Oct 11;95:109307. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2019.08.001. Epub 2019 Aug 8. PMID: 31431344

Neumann EE, Young M, Erdemir A. A pragmatic approach to understand peripheral artery lumen surface stiffness due to plaque heterogeneity. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2019 Mar;22(4):396-408. doi: 10.1080/10255842.2018.1560427. Epub 2019 Feb 4. PMID: 30712373 Free PMC article.

Schimmoeller T, Colbrunn R, Nagle T, Lobosky M, Neumann EE, Owings TM, Landis B, Jelovsek JE, Erdemir A. Instrumentation of off-the-shelf ultrasound system for measurement of probe forces during freehand imaging. J Biomech. 2019 Jan 23;83:117-124. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2018.11.032. Epub 2018 Nov 26. PMID: 30514629

Neumann EE, Owings TM, Schimmoeller T, Nagle TF, Colbrunn RW, Landis B, Jelovsek JE, Wong M, Ku JP, Erdemir A. Reference data on thickness and mechanics of tissue layers and anthropometry of musculoskeletal extremities. Sci Data. 2018 Sep 25;5:180193. doi: 10.1038/sdata.2018.193. PMID: 30251995 Free PMC article.

Schimmoeller T, Cho KH, Colbrunn R, Nagle T, Neumann E, Erdemir A. Instrumentation of Surgical Tools To Measure Load and Position During Incision, Tissue Retraction, and Suturing. Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2018 Jul;2018:933-936. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2018.8512332. PMID: 30440543

Yao Y, Erdemir A, Li ZM. Finite element analysis for transverse carpal ligament tensile strain and carpal arch area. J Biomech. 2018 May 17;73:210-216. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2018.04.005. Epub 2018 Apr 12. PMID: 29678419 Free PMC article.

Halloran JP, Sibole SC, Erdemir A. The potential for intercellular mechanical interaction: simulations of single chondrocyte versus anatomically based distribution. Biomech Model Mechanobiol. 2018 Feb;17(1):159-168. doi: 10.1007/s10237-017-0951-1. Epub 2017 Aug 24. PMID: 28836010 Free PMC article.

Walia P, Erdemir A, Li ZM. Subject-specific finite element analysis of the carpal tunnel cross-sectional to examine tunnel area changes in response to carpal arch loading. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2017 Feb;42:25-30. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2017.01.004. Epub 2017 Jan 4. PMID: 28073093 Free PMC article.

Erdemir A, Hunter PJ, Holzapfel GA, Loew LM, Middleton J, Jacobs CR, Nithiarasu P, Löhner R, Wei G, Winkelstein BA, Barocas VH, Guilak F, Ku JP, Hicks JL, Delp SL, Sacks M, Weiss JA, Ateshian GA, Maas SA, McCulloch AD, Peng GCY. Perspectives on Sharing Models and Related Resources in Computational Biomechanics Research. J Biomech Eng. 2018 Feb 1;140(2):0247011-02470111. doi: 10.1115/1.4038768.
PMID: 29247253 Free PMC article.

Mulugeta L, Drach A, Erdemir A, Hunt CA, Horner M, Ku JP, Myers JG Jr, Vadigepalli R, Lytton WW. Front Neuroinform. 2018 Apr 16;12:18. doi: 10.3389/fninf.2018.00018. eCollection 2018. PMID: 29713272 Free PMC article. Review.

Erdemir A, Guess TM, Halloran JP, Modenese L, Reinbolt JA, Thelen DG, Umberger BR, Erdemir A, Guess TM, Halloran JP, Modenese L, Reinbolt JA, Thelen DG, Umberger BR, Umberger BR, Erdemir A, Thelen DG, Guess TM, Reinbolt JA, Modenese L, Halloran JP. Commentary on the integration of model sharing and reproducibility analysis to scholarly publishing workflow in computational biomechanics. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2016 Oct;63(10):2080-2085. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2016.2602760. PMID: 28072567 Free PMC article.

Maas SA, Erdemir A, Halloran JP, Weiss JA. A general framework for application of prestrain to computational models of biological materials. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2016 Aug;61:499-510. doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2016.04.012. Epub 2016 Apr 13. PMID: 27131609 Free PMC article.

Telfer S, Erdemir A, Woodburn J, Cavanagh PR. Simplified versus geometrically accurate models of forefoot anatomy to predict plantar pressures: A finite element study. J Biomech. 2016 Jan 25;49(2):289-94. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.12.001. Epub 2015 Dec 11. PMID: 26708965

Bennetts CJ, Sibole S, Erdemir A. Automated generation of tissue-specific three-dimensional finite element meshes containing ellipsoidal cellular inclusions. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2015;18(12):1293-304. doi: 10.1080/10255842.2014.900545. Epub 2014 Apr 7.PMID: 24708340

Erdemir A. Open Knee: Open Source Modeling and Simulation in Knee Biomechanics. J Knee Surg. 2016 Feb;29(2):107-16. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1564600. Epub 2015 Oct 7. PMID: 26444849 Free PMC article.

Chokhandre S, Colbrunn R, Bennetts C, Erdemir A. A Comprehensive Specimen-Specific Multiscale Data Set for Anatomical and Mechanical Characterization of the Tibiofemoral Joint. PLoS One. 2015 Sep 18;10(9):e0138226. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0138226. eCollection 2015. PMID: 26381404 Free PMC article.

Erdemir A, Bennetts C, Davis S, Reddy A, Sibole S. Multiscale cartilage biomechanics: technical challenges in realizing a high-throughput modelling and simulation workflow. Interface Focus. 2015 Apr 6;5(2):20140081. doi: 10.1098/rsfs.2014.0081. PMID: 25844153 Free PMC article.

Sahoo S, DeLozier KR, Erdemir A, Derwin KA. Clinically relevant mechanical testing of hernia graft constructs. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2015 Jan;41:177-88. doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2014.10.011. Epub 2014 Oct 27. PMID: 25460414

Telfer S, Erdemir A, Woodburn J, Cavanagh PR. What has finite element analysis taught us about diabetic foot disease and its management? A systematic review. PLoS One. 2014 Oct 7;9(10):e109994. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0109994. eCollection 2014. PMID: 25290098 Free PMC article. Review.

Chien MS, Erdemir A, van den Bogert AJ, Smith WA. Development of dynamic models of the Mauch prosthetic knee for prospective gait simulation. J Biomech. 2014 Sep 22;47(12):3178-84. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.06.011. Epub 2014 Jun 21. PMID: 25059894

Spirka TA, Erdemir A, Ewers Spaulding S, Yamane A, Telfer S, Cavanagh PR. Simple finite element models for use in the design of therapeutic footwear. J Biomech. 2014 Sep 22;47(12):2948-55. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.07.020. Epub 2014 Jul 30. PMID: 25134436

de Vries SA, van Turnhout MC, Oomens CW, Erdemir A, Ito K, van Donkelaar CC. Deformation thresholds for chondrocyte death and the protective effect of the pericellular matrix. Tissue Eng Part A. 2014 Jul;20(13-14):1870-6. doi: 10.1089/ten.TEA.2013.0436. Epub 2014 May 15. PMID: 24438476 Free PMC article.

Sibole SC, Maas S, Halloran JP, Weiss JA, Erdemir A. Evaluation of a post-processing approach for multiscale analysis of biphasic mechanics of chondrocytes. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2013 Oct;16(10):1112-26. doi: 10.1080/10255842.2013.809711. Epub 2013 Jun 28. PMID: 23809004 Free PMC article.

Erdemir A. Open Knee: A Pathway to Community Driven Modeling and Simulation in Joint Biomechanics. J Med Device. 2013 Dec;7(4):0409101-409101. doi: 10.1115/1.4025767. Epub 2013 Dec 5. PMID: 24895518 Free PMC article. No abstract available.

Petre M, Erdemir A, Panoskaltsis VP, Spirka TA, Cavanagh PR. Optimization of nonlinear hyperelastic coefficients for foot tissues using a magnetic resonance imaging deformation experiment. J Biomech Eng. 2013 Jun;135(6):61001-12. doi: 10.1115/1.4023695. PMID: 23699713 Free PMC article.

Bennetts CJ, Owings TM, Erdemir A, Botek G, Cavanagh PR. Clustering and classification of regional peak plantar pressures of diabetic feet. J Biomech. 2013 Jan 4;46(1):19-25. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2012.09.007. Epub 2012 Oct 22. PMID: 23089457 Free PMC article.

Young M, Erdemir A, Stucke S, Klatte R, Davis B, Navia JL. Simulation Based Design and Evaluation of a Transcatheter Mitral Heart Valve Frame. J Med Device. 2012 Sep;6(3):31005-31012. doi: 10.1115/1.4007182. PMID: 23372624 Free PMC article.

Chokhandre S, Halloran JP, van den Bogert AJ, Erdemir A. A three-dimensional inverse finite element analysis of the heel pad. J Biomech Eng. 2012 Mar;134(3):031002. doi: 10.1115/1.4005692.
PMID: 22482682 Free PMC article.

Erdemir A, Guess TM, Halloran J, Tadepalli SC, Morrison TM. Considerations for reporting finite element analysis studies in biomechanics. J Biomech. 2012 Feb 23;45(4):625-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2011.11.038. Epub 2012 Jan 10. PMID: 22236526 Free PMC article. Review.

Tawhai M, Bischoff J, Einstein D, Erdemir A, Guess T, Reinbolt J. Multiscale modeling in computational biomechanics. IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag. 2009 May-Jun;28(3):41-9. doi: 10.1109/MEMB.2009.932489. PMID: 19457733 Free PMC article. No abstract available.

Erdemir A, McLean S, Herzog W, van den Bogert AJ. Model-based estimation of muscle forces exerted during movements. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2007 Feb;22(2):131-54. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2006.09.005. Epub 2006 Oct 27. PMID: 17070969 Review.

Mesiha MM, Derwin KA, Sibole SC, Erdemir A, McCarron JA. The biomechanical relevance of anterior rotator cuff cable tears in a cadaveric shoulder model. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013 Oct 16;95(20):1817-24. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.L.00784. PMID: 24132354

Sibole SC, Erdemir A. Chondrocyte deformations as a function of tibiofemoral joint loading predicted by a generalized high-throughput pipeline of multi-scale simulations. PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e37538. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037538. Epub 2012 May 23. PMID: 22649535 Free PMC article.

Mouradi R, Desai N, Erdemir A, Agarwal A. The use of FDTD in establishing in vitro experimentation conditions representative of lifelike cell phone radiation on the spermatozoa. Health Phys. 2012 Jan;102(1):54-62. doi: 10.1097/HP.0b013e3182289bfb. PMID: 22134078

Halloran JP, Erdemir A. Adaptive surrogate modeling for expedited estimation of nonlinear tissue properties through inverse finite element analysis. Ann Biomed Eng. 2011 Sep;39(9):2388-97. doi: 10.1007/s10439-011-0317-2. Epub 2011 May 5. PMID: 21544674 Free PMC article.

Tadepalli SC, Erdemir A, Cavanagh PR. Comparison of hexahedral and tetrahedral elements in finite element analysis of the foot and footwear. J Biomech. 2011 Aug 11;44(12):2337-43. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2011.05.006. Epub 2011 Jul 13. PMID: 21742332 Free PMC article.

Halloran JP, Ackermann M, Erdemir A, van den Bogert AJ. Concurrent musculoskeletal dynamics and finite element analysis predicts altered gait patterns to reduce foot tissue loading. J Biomech. 2010 Oct 19;43(14):2810-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2010.05.036. Epub 2010 Jun 22. PMID: 20573349 Free PMC article.

Halloran JP, Erdemir A, van den Bogert AJ. Adaptive surrogate modeling for efficient coupling of musculoskeletal control and tissue deformation models. J Biomech Eng. 2009 Jan;131(1):011014. doi: 10.1115/1.3005333. PMID: 19045930 Free PMC article.

Erdemir A, Sirimamilla PA, Halloran JP, van den Bogert AJ. An elaborate data set characterizing the mechanical response of the foot. J Biomech Eng. 2009 Sep;131(9):094502. doi: 10.1115/1.3148474. PMID: 19725699 Free PMC article.

Petre M, Erdemir A, Cavanagh PR. An MRI-compatible foot-loading device for assessment of internal tissue deformation. J Biomech. 2008;41(2):470-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2007.09.018. Epub 2007 Oct 23. PMID: 17959184

Budhabhatti SP, Erdemir A, Petre M, Sferra J, Donley B, Cavanagh PR. Finite element modeling of the first ray of the foot: a tool for the design of interventions. J Biomech Eng. 2007 Oct;129(5):750-6. doi: 10.1115/1.2768108. PMID: 17887901

Yavuz M, Erdemir A, Botek G, Hirschman GB, Bardsley L, Davis BL. Peak plantar pressure and shear locations: relevance to diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2007 Oct;30(10):2643-5. doi: 10.2337/dc07-0862. Epub 2007 Jul 9. PMID: 17620447 No abstract available.

Erdemir A, Viveiros ML, Ulbrecht JS, Cavanagh PR. An inverse finite-element model of heel-pad indentation. J Biomech. 2006;39(7):1279-86. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2005.03.007. PMID: 15907330 Clinical Trial.

Goske S, Erdemir A, Petre M, Budhabhatti S, Cavanagh PR. Reduction of plantar heel pressures: Insole design using finite element analysis. J Biomech. 2006;39(13):2363-70. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2005.08.006. Epub 2005 Sep 28. PMID: 16197952

Erdemir A, Hamel AJ, Fauth AR, Piazza SJ, Sharkey NA. Dynamic loading of the plantar aponeurosis in walking. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004 Mar;86(3):546-52. doi: 10.2106/00004623-200403000-00013.
PMID: 14996881

Erdemir A, Saucerman JJ, Lemmon D, Loppnow B, Turso B, Ulbrecht JS, Cavanagh PR. Local plantar pressure relief in therapeutic footwear: design guidelines from finite element models. J Biomech. 2005 Sep;38(9):1798-806. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2004.09.009. PMID: 16023466 Clinical Trial.

Erdemir A, Piazza SJ. Changes in foot loading following plantar fasciotomy: a computer modeling study. J Biomech Eng. 2004 Apr;126(2):237-43. doi: 10.1115/1.1691447. PMID: 15179854 Clinical Trial.

Piazza SJ, Erdemir A, Okita N, Cavanagh PR. Assessment of the functional method of hip joint center location subject to reduced range of hip motion. J Biomech. 2004 Mar;37(3):349-56. doi: 10.1016/s0021-9290(03)00288-4. PMID: 14757454

Erdemir A, Hamel AJ, Piazza SJ, Sharkey NA. Fiberoptic measurement of tendon forces is influenced by skin movement artifact. J Biomech. 2003 Mar;36(3):449-55. doi: 10.1016/s0021-9290(02)00414-1. PMID: 12594993

Erdemir A, Piazza SJ. Rotational foot placement specifies the lever arm of the ground reaction force during the push-off phase of walking initiation. Gait Posture. 2002 Jun;15(3):212-9. doi: 10.1016/s0966-6362(01)00192-8. PMID: 11983495

Erdemir A, Piazza SJ, Sharkey NA. Influence of loading rate and cable migration on fiberoptic measurement of tendon force. J Biomech. 2002 Jun;35(6):857-62. doi: 10.1016/s0021-9290(02)00010-6. PMID: 12021008


12/03/2020 |  

Computational Modeling Expert Mobilizes National Committee to Create Best Practices

Computational modeling and simulation have long been used in research and engineering, and are increasingly employed to predict the origin and spread of diseases.




07/18/2019 |  

$3.5M Grant Awarded to Annotate and Exchange Virtual Anatomy

Ahmet Erdemir, PhD, Department of Biomedical Engineering, has received a 4-year, $3.5 million grant from the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (part of the National Institutes of Health) to develop a software suite that will allow the annotation of virtual anatomy.